sticking adj : extending out above or beyond a surface or boundary; "the jutting limb of a tree"; "massive projected buttresses"; "his protruding ribs"; "a pile of boards sticking over the end of his truck" [syn: jutting, projected, projecting, protruding, sticking(p), sticking out(p)]
- present participle of stick
The - drum is a member of the percussion group, technically classified as a membranophone. Drums consist of at least one membrane, called a drumhead or drum skin, that is stretched over a shell and struck, either directly with parts of a player's body, or with some sort of implement such as a drumstick, to produce sound. Drums are the world's oldest and most ubiquitous musical instruments, and the basic design has remained virtually unchanged for thousands of years. Most drums are considered "untuned instruments", however many modern musicians are beginning to tune drums to songs; Terry Bozzio has constructed a kit using diatonic and chromatically tuned drums. A few such as timpani are always tuned to a certain pitch. Often, several drums are arranged together to create a drum set that can be played by one musician with all four limbs.
ConstructionThe shell almost invariably has a circular opening over which the drumhead is stretched, but the shape of the remainder of the shell varies widely. In the western musical tradition, the most usual shape is a cylinder, although timpani, for example, use bowl-shaped shells. Other shapes include a frame design (tar, Bodhrán), truncated cones (bongo drums, Ashiko), goblet shaped (djembe), and joined truncated cones (talking drum),
Drums with cylindrical shells can be open at one end (as is the case with timbales), or can have two drum heads. Single-headed drums normally consist of a skin which is stretched over an enclosed space, or over one of the ends of a hollow vessel. Drums with two heads covering both ends of a cylindrical shell often have a small hole somewhat halfway between the two heads; the shell forms a resonating chamber for the resulting sound. Exceptions include the African slit drum, made from a hollowed-out tree trunk, and the Caribbean steel drum, made from a metal barrel. Drums with two heads can also have a set of wires, called snares, held across the bottom head, top head, or both heads, hence the name snare drum.
On modern band and orchestral drums, the drumhead is affixed to a hoop (also called a "rim"), which in turn is held onto the shell by a "counterhoop", which is then held by means of a number of tuning screws called "tension rods" (also known as lugs) placed regularly around the circumference. The head's tension can be adjusted by loosening or tightening the rods. Many such drums have six to ten tension rods. The sound of a drum depends on several variables, including shape, size and thickness of its shell, materials from which the shell was made, type of drumhead used and tension applied to it, position of the drum, location, and the velocity and angle in which it is struck.
Prior to the invention of tension rods drum skins were attached and tuned by rope systems such as that used on the Djembe or pegs and ropes such as that used on Ewe Drums.
Sound of a drumSeveral factors determine the sound a drum produces, including the type of shell the drum has, the type of drumheads it has, and the tension of the drumheads. Different drum sounds have different uses in music. For example, a jazz drummer may want drums that sound crisp, clean, and a little on the soft side, whereas a rock and roll drummer may prefer drums that sound loud and deep. Because these drummers want different sounds, their drums will be constructed differently.
The drumhead has the most effect on how a drum sounds. Each type of drumhead serves its own musical purpose and has its own unique sound. Thicker drumheads are lower-pitched and can be very loud. Drumheads with a white plastic coating on them muffle the overtones of the drumhead slightly, producing a less diverse pitch. Drumheads with central silver or black dots tend to muffle the overtones even more. And drumheads with perimeter sound rings mostly eliminate overtones (Howie 2005). Some jazz drummers avoid using thick drumheads, preferring double ply drumheads or drumheads with perimeter sound rings. Rock drummers often prefer the thicker or coated drumheads.
The second biggest factor affecting the sound produced by a drum is the tension at which the drumhead is held against the shell of the drum. When the hoop is placed around the drumhead and shell and tightened down with bolts, the tension of the head can be adjusted. When the tension is increased, the amplitude of the sound is reduced and the frequency is increased, making the pitch higher and the volume lower.
The type of shell also affects the sound of a drum. Because the vibrations resonate in the shell of the drum, the shell can be used to increase the volume and to manipulate the type of sound produced. The larger the diameter of the shell, the lower the pitch of the drum will be. The type of wood is important as well. Birch generates a bright, crisp, and clean sound, maple reproduces the frequency of the drumhead as it resonates and has a warm, wholesome sound while mahogany raises the frequency of low pitches and keeps higher frequencies at about the same speed. When choosing a set of shells, a jazz drummer may want smaller maple shells, while a rock drummer may want larger birch shells. For more information about tuning drums or the physics of a drum, visit the external links listed below.
UsesDrums are usually played by the hands, or by one or two sticks. In many traditional cultures drums have a symbolic function and are often used in religious ceremonies. Drums are often used in music therapy, especially hand drums, because of their tactile nature and easy use by a wide variety of people.
Within the realm of popular music and jazz, "drums" usually refers to a drum kit or a set of drums, and "drummer" to the actual band member or person who plays them.
HistoryThe earliest known drum-like instrument is from Mezhirich, near Kiev, Ukraine, and dates back to approximately 15,000 years ago. The instrument was found at the site of the oldest known house, constructed of mammoth bones. They were found in 1965 by a farmer digging a new basement six feet below the ground. The drum-like instrument is a hollow mammoth skull with signs of wear from being hit by mammoth bones decorated with red paint.
In the past drums have been used not only for their musical qualities, but also as a means of communication, especially through signals. The talking drums of Africa can imitate the inflections and pitch variations of a spoken language and are used for communicating over great distances. Throughout Sri Lankan history drums have been used for communication between the state and the community, and Sri Lankan drums have a history stretching back over 2500 years. Japanese troops used Taiko drums to motivate troops, to help set a marching pace, and to call out orders or announcements. Fife-and-drum corps of Swiss mercenary foot soldiers also used drums. They used an early version of the snare drum carried over the player's right shoulder, suspended by a strap (typically played with one hand using traditional grip). It is to this instrument that English word "drum" was first used.
- Howie. 2005. Tuning. Available from: via the worldwide web. Accessed 2005 Apr 22.
- Johnson. 1999. Drum Woods. Available from: via the worldwide web. Accessed 2005 Apr 22.
Types of drum
- Bass drums
- Bongo drums
- Dong Son drum
- Ewe Drums
- Goblet drum
- Hand drum
- Log drum
- Side drum (Marching snare drum)
- Slit drum
- Snare drum
- Steelpan (steel drum)
- Talking drum
- Tenor drums
- Tom-tom drum
- Drums My Life—the largest drum forum.
- 411 Drums—one of the internet's largest drum information portals, with drum lessons, drumtabs, drum tips, and more.
- Drumdojo—encyclopaedic drum information since 1998 - all drum types. Now with Online Drum Community
- Free Drum Lessons—120+ original free streaming video drum lessons.
- Drum Glossary—Explaining the various elements of the drumset
- Drum Tuning—- Foolproof advice for getting great sounds from your drums
- Drums and Drummers—resources on drummers from 1900 to the present.
- Drumtopia Drum News—drumming news, drum tab search and a directory of drum resources.
- Drummer World—a large collection of online drum clinics as well as drum videos.
- http://www.1234drums.com/index_files/thelessons.htm—Downloadable Video Drum Lessons
- Virtual drums and resources for drummers
- WikiRecording's Guide to Recording Drums
- Drums Addict Festival Official Website - the biggest and most beautiful drum dedicated event in France, pictures and videos...
- Field Drums Blog Photos, information, critical commentary and analysis of field drums, focusing on drums of the American Civil War
- National Music Museum
sticking in Tosk Albanian: Trommel
sticking in Arabic: طبلة
sticking in Min Nan: Kó͘
sticking in Breton: Taboulin
sticking in Bulgarian: Барабан
sticking in Catalan: Tambor
sticking in Chuvash: Параппан
sticking in Czech: Buben
sticking in Danish: Tromme
sticking in Estonian: Trumm
sticking in Spanish: Tambor (instrumento musical)
sticking in Esperanto: Tamburo
sticking in Basque: Danbor
sticking in Persian: طبل
sticking in French: Tambour (musique)
sticking in Western Frisian: Tromme
sticking in Galician: Tambor
sticking in Korean: 북
sticking in Croatian: Bubanj
sticking in Indonesian: Drum
sticking in Inuktitut: ᕿᓚᐅᑦ/qilaut
sticking in Icelandic: Tromma
sticking in Italian: Tamburo
sticking in Hebrew: תוף
sticking in Latvian: Bungas
sticking in Lithuanian: Būgnas
sticking in Hungarian: Dob
sticking in Macedonian: Тапаниnah:Huēhuētl
sticking in Dutch: Trommel
sticking in Japanese: 太鼓
sticking in Norwegian: Tromme
sticking in Norwegian Nynorsk: Tromme
sticking in Polish: Bęben (muzyka)
sticking in Portuguese: Tambor
sticking in Kölsch: Trommel (Mussikk)
sticking in Romanian: Tobă
sticking in Quechua: Wankar
sticking in Russian: Барабан
sticking in Sicilian: Tammuru
sticking in Simple English: Drum
sticking in Slovak: Bubon (hudba)
sticking in Slovenian: Boben
sticking in Serbian: Бубањ (музички инструмент)
sticking in Serbo-Croatian: Bubanj
sticking in Finnish: Rumpu
sticking in Swedish: Trumma
sticking in Vietnamese: Trống
sticking in Cherokee: ᎠᎱᎵ
sticking in Turkish: Davul
sticking in Ukrainian: Барабан
sticking in Chinese: 鼓